There is currently no test to detect Gay DNA, but there may be soon. At that point clinics will likely screen and eliminate Gay applicants on the fallacious assumption that Gay DNA is bad DNA.
We must act before this becomes possible.
Steps to Becoming a Donor:
The first step to becoming a donor is to request a Donor Applicant Questionnaire from a clinic near you. Once you have completed the application, please mail it back to the sperm bank of your choice. The laboratory supervisor will evaluate the application; if you qualify for the program, you will be contacted for an interview. The interview is the first step of the screening process, which can be completed in four weeks. At the time of the interview, the laboratory supervisor will review your application with you, explain the anonymous donor program in its entirety, answer any questions you may have, and ask you to produce a specimen.
Step two of the screening process involves producing three to four semen specimens for evaluation of both fresh semen quality and cryo-survivability. After completing step two, qualified applicants will begin step three, which is medical and infectious disease testing. The if you qualify, you will be requireded to give blood, urine, and semen specimens for the genetic and infectious disease testing. In addition, a general physical examination will be completed. It takes approximately three weeks before the results are received on the submitted specimens. Once the final results are reported with the condition that all results are negative, you will be asked to start donating on a regular basis as an active donor.
The first specimen produced as an active donor will be considered your official start date and your six month commitment will begin from this date. At the end of your six month commitment, you will be reassessed as a donor. If for some reason you chose to stop donating or were asked to stop donating, this would be considered your official stop date. You will be required to provide blood samples at three months and six months from your official stop date in order to release quarantined doses. Each dose that is produced and inventoried for distribution is quarantined for six months in accordance with ASRM guidelines.
Over their lifetimes, approximately one in every five couples in the United States seeks infertility care. Surprisingly, only half of couples who are trying to become pregnant achieve pregnancy easily and about one in ten American couples of reproductive age are involuntary infertile; male infertility accounts for half of these cases. Despite the relative importance of infertility due to the male, infertility evaluations have traditionally focused on women, because women tend to seek gynecological care and because men often are reluctant to seek advice.
A variety of disorders ranging from hormonal disturbances to physical problems, to psychological problems can cause male infertility. Although many treatment options are now available, in many cases treatment will not work. In many instances, male infertility is caused by testicular damage resulting in an inability of the testicle to produce sperm. Once damaged, the testicle will not usually regain its sperm-making capabilities; this aspect of male infertility is analogous to menopause (though not natural like menopause) for women and cannot usually be treated. Despite medicines limited ability to treat male infertility, many successful treatment options are available for its many causes. Besides testicular damage, the main causes of male infertility are low sperm production and poor sperm quality.
The Causes of Male Infertility:
Male infertility has many causes--from hormonal imbalances, to physical problems, to psychological and/or behavioral problems. Moreover, fertility reflects a mans overall health. Men who live a healthy lifestyle are more likely to produce healthy sperm. The following list highlights some lifestyle choices that negatively impact male fertility--it is not all-inclusive: Smoking--significantly decreases both sperm count and sperm cell motility. Prolonged use of marijuana and other recreational drugs. Chronic alcohol abuse. Anabolic steroid use--causes testicular shrinkage and infertility. Overly intense exercise--produces high levels of adrenal steroid hormones which cause a testosterone deficiency resulting in infertility. Inadequate vitamin C and Zinc in the diet. Tight underwear--increases scrotal temperature which results in decreased sperm production. Exposure to environmental hazards and toxins such as pesticides, lead, paint, radiation, radioactive substances, mercury, benzene, boron, and heavy metals Malnutrition and anemia. Excessive stress.
About 33% of couples have an infertility problem that is due to the male partner. Although there have been many advances over the last few years in the treatment of male factor infertility, there are a number of couples for which these treatments are either inappropriate, or unsuccessful. The alternative is to consider the use of donor sperm. Sperm donation is most successful in cases where the couple's infertility problem has been identified as the Intended Father's low sperm count and/or poor motility. It is also one of the most affordable and least invasive methods of infertility treatment. Artificial insemination is also useful for diabetics suffering from retrograde ejaculation (where the sperm is released incorrectly into the bladder), men suffering from impotence or semen deficiencies. Donor sperm is injected directly into the Recipient womens cervix. Most sperm banks operate on an anonymous donor basis, an extended profile of the donor's personality and interests is used to match donors with recipient couples.
Most sperm banks comply with the ASRM (American Society for Reproductive Medicine) guidelines for sperm donation. Accorging to these guidelines, Sperm Banks and Cryobanks may not accept homosexual men as sperm donors. The FDA is also promulgating national regulations which, if passed, would prohibit sperm banks from accepting homosexual applicants into sperm donor programs.
Infectious Agent Evaluation:
Each applicant is serologically tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibody, antibody, syphilis, SGOT, SGPT, and HTLV-I. In addition, applicants are also tested for HIV viral presence by PCR. Each applicant's semen specimen is tested for chlamydia, mycoplasma, gonococcus, and cytomegalovirus. Adenovirus, trichomonas, candida and actinomyces are tested when indicated.
Each semen specimen submitted for analysis is evaluated for volume, pH, , motility, progression, viability, abnormality and white blood cells. The specimens are frozen and subsequently thawed for post-thaw analysis. Any applicant whose semen specimen does not meet the minimum post-thaw standard of 20 million total motile cells/ml and 35% motility is excluded from the screening process.
Medical and Genetic Evaluation:
Each applicant has a complete physical examination, and their medical and genetic history is evaluated by a clinical geneticist. All applicants have a full karyotypic analysis and are screened for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency carrier status (S & Z mutations) and are tested for cystic fibrosis carrier status with DNA-based tests that detect 85% of cystic fibrosis carriers in non-Jewish Caucasians and 95% in the Jewish population. Applicants of Jewish descent are tested to exclude carriers for Tay-Sachs, Canavan, Gaucher, and Breast and Ovarian Cancer ( BRCA-1) gene mutations. Applicants of French-Canadian ancestry are screened for Tay-Sachs. Applicants of Asian, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean ancestry are screened for thalassemia. Applicants of African ancestry are screened for sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies. Any candidate that is identified as a carrier or exhibits evidence of any of these diseases is not accepted into the donor program.
Once an applicant is accepted into the donor program, each semen specimen is evaluated individually both pre-freeze and post-thaw. Any specimen not meeting the minimum standard requirements is discarded. All specimens are quarantined six months for donor HIV-1, HIV-2, Hepatitis B surface antigen, and Hepatitis C antibody by PCR are repeated every six months.
Each donor is serologically tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody, hepatitis C antibody, cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody, syphilis, SGOT, SGPT, and HTLV-I. In addition, each donor is tested for the presence of the actual HIV mycoplasma, gonococcus, and cytomegalovirus. All donor specimens are quarantined for six months and the donors retested for HIV-1, HIV-2, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C infection before release for use.
The genetic history of all donor applicants is evaluated by a clinical geneticist physician prior to acceptance into the semen donor program. Any applicant with a family history that places him at higher than normal risk of transmitting a genetic condition is rejected. Carrier status is tested on applicants of Jewish descent for Tay Sachs, Canavan, and Gaucher disease, BREAST and OVARIAN CANCER (BRCA-1) mutations. Potential donors of Asian, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean background are screened for , and applicants of African descent for sickle cell anemia and other hemoglobinopathies. In addition, all applicants are DNA tested to exclude cystic fibrosis carriers and alpha-1 antitrypsin (S & Z mutations) carriers. Any candidate that is identified as a carrier or exhibits evidence of any of these diseases is not accepted into the donor program. Finally, all applicants have a full chromosome analysis.
Every semen specimen produced by a donor must meet the minimum quality standard of 20 million total motile cells per milliliter (ml) concentration (10 million motile cells per vial) and 35% motility post-thaw. Each donor specimen is tested after freezing and the actual survival results are included with each specimen shipped. Any specimen not meeting the minimum standard is discarded. The total motile cell concentration after freezing and thawing is 40 million per ml.
Most sperm banks have frozen donor semen specimens specifically prepared for two types of insemination; direct intrauterine insemination (IUI) and intracervical insemination (ICI). IUI ready frozen donor semen has been prepared by washing the fresh ejaculate specimen to remove the seminal plasma contents prior to freezing. The specimens are resuspended and frozen in an egg yolk citrate (EYC) buffer. Most Cryobank's IUI ready and ICI specimens have the same minimum quality guarantee of 35% motility and 20 million total motile cells/ml. concentration.
Donor Candidates are Automatically Disqualified:
1. Donor or either of his parents is adopted.
2. Donor used pituitary-derived human growth hormones.
3. Donor used non-prescribed steroids.
4. Donor was excluded from blood donation due to infectious disease.
5. Donor had jaundice or enlarged liver in last 12 months.
6. Donor had blood transfusion in the last 12 months.
7. Donor candidates are disqualified for the following at-risk behaviors:
8. Injected non-therapeutic drugs.
9. Had sex with another male.
10. Had sex with someone they suspect was infected with HIV.
11. Had sex with someone they suspect was infected with viral hepatitis.
12.Tested positive for HIV.
13. Engaged in sex for money or drugs.
14. Had sex with someone who had sex with a bisexual male in the past five years.
15. Received clotting factor concentrates for hemophilia or related clotting disorder.
16. Had sex in the past year with someone who would answer "yes" to any of these questions.
17. Had more than a certain number of sexual partners in a 12 month period.
18. Donor candidates are also disqualified if they have been diagnosed or if there is suspected infection of the following: Genital warts, Hepatitis, Herpes, HIV, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Trichomonas
Donor candidates are asked about the familial history of the diseases listed on the following pages. In consideration of the following diseases, the candidate is excluded from a becoming a donor if he has a personal history or a significant family history of: Alcoholism, Arthritis including but not limited to Osteoarthritis Gout Rheumatoid, Asthma, Autism, Auto-immune disease including, Crest Syndrome Lupus, Scleroderma Sjorgen's Syndrome, Cancer or tumor including: Colon Hodgkins, Leukemia Lung, Lymphoma Skin, Congenital Hip Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, Deafness, Diabetes, Down Syndrome, Drug abuse, Dyslexia, Eczema, Epilepsy, Exposure to radiation, toxic chemicals, etc. Eyesight deficiency not corrected by glasses including: Blindness Cataracts, Color blindness, Glaucoma Retinoblastoma. Gastrointestinal Disorders including: Crohn's Disease Diverticulitis Pyloric stenosis, Ulcerative colitis Ulcers. Heart disorders including: Heart Attack Congenital heart disease, Hemophilia, High blood pressure, Hypoglycemia. Kidney disorders including: Born with one kidney Polycystic kidney disease, Progressive kidney disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome Malformations Including: Cleft lip Cleft palate, Club foot Polydactyly. Mental Illness Including: Depression Schizophrenia, Manic depressive psychosis (bipolar disorder), Mental retardation, Muscular dystrophy Neurological Diseases Including: Alzheimer's Creutzfeld-Jacob, Epilepsy Guillain-Barre, Huntington's JC virus, Lou Gehrig's Multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Neurofibromatosis (small, discrete pigmented skin lesions), Neural tube defect, PKU or inherited metabolic disorder, Premature degeneration of any organ, Sickle cell anemia, Skin diseases, Stroke, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Tay Sachs, Thalassemia, or Thyroid disorder.